Let’s face it. Losing your hair in your early 30s—for whatever reason—is a scary experience. When mine started falling out in large quantities about two months ago, the coincidental timing with my return to the low-protein PKU diet did not go unnoticed. And while I’d rather deal with this humbling experience in private, I felt this subject warranted some attention especially since I’ve only been able to find bits and pieces of anecdotal evidence of the connection between PKU and hair loss.
So let’s start with what are some common reasons for hair loss:
- Protein deficiencies
- Deficiencies in vitamins (e.g. B and C), micro-nutrients (e.g. selenium and iron) and fatty acids
- Imbalance involving thyroid
- Autoimmune disease
- Poor blood flow or poor circulation to the scalp
- Fluctuating hormones
Here’s what you can do if you determine that one or more of these may be causing your hair loss:
- Protein deficiencies—As was cited in this 2007 article from National PKU News, if a PKU patient is found to be protein deficient, simply increasing the amount of formula consumed each day could help. Speak with your PKU clinic and ask them to run an albumin blood test to determine if you are protein deficient.
- Vitamin, micro-nutrient and fatty acid deficiencies—Because the PKU diet is so restrictive, vitamin, micro-nutrient and fatty acid deficiencies are likely culprits. A 2010 article from Karger Publishers titled Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria notes that “Some AA [amino acid] products are devoid of vitamin and mineral supplements to improve taste and acceptability with the assumption that separate vitamin and mineral supplements will be taken each day,” (p. 62). The article goes on to note that the PKU diet tends to contain more carbohydrates and less fatty acids. To help counteract these deficiencies, you may want to take a daily multivitamin and make an effort to consume more vegetable oils that are rich in linolenic acid such as canola or soybean oil.
- Autoimmune disease, thyroid, poor blood flow and fluctuating hormones–These conditions may indicate that something is wrong independent from the PKU diet; however, it is not impossible for PKU patients returning to the diet to also experience one or more of these. For example, maternal PKU patients may experience “wonky” hormones during and after pregnancy. In any case, these conditions may require a specialist consultation outside of your PKU clinic.
Through the process of elimination, I’ve been able to rule out most of these in my case. Unfortunately, stress—the last reason cited above—is difficult to manage on the low-protein diet. In this case, there are two types of stress worth distinguishing:
1.) The mental stress it takes to deal with the complexity of the diet, accessibility issues and societal peer pressure
2.) The physical stress or toll that it takes on the human body when a person returns to the PKU diet
According to a registered dietician my clinic consulted with, hair loss from the sudden shock of returning to diet (which in my case was “cold turkey”), causes a large percentage of the hair follicles to enter into a resting or dormant phase. The patient doesn’t experience hair loss at that moment, but rather when the hair goes from the sleeping stage back into the growing phase, the new hair comes up and pushes old hair out. So in effect, the hair loss I am seeing now actually happened months ago, presumably when I returned to diet in January of this year.
This theory about the stress a body endures after returning to the PKU diet is simply that…a theory. There is little to no research confirming this theory however plausible it may seem. PKU medical professionals may chose to ignore the matter altogether on the premise that they are there to treat the diet and nothing else. This narrow approach to PKU medical treatment is concerning though, especially when you consider that hair loss may become one of the most difficult barriers to dietary adherence. At least it has been for me. In the interim, until more is known about how to treat or avoid PKU-related hair loss, this scenario may also be another “case-in-point” for the need to supplement PKU dietary care with mental health support.
Be sure to check out the follow-up post on PKU-related hair loss: Hair loss experienced by PKU patients returning to the low-protein diet is temporary.